The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them. Ein dynamisches Inhaltsverzeichnis ermöglicht den direkten Zugriff auf die verschiedenen Abschnitte. Retrouvez Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Werke: Vollst Ndige Ausgabe Durch Einen Verein Von Freunden Des Verewigten..... Wissenschaft Der Logik. [137] Regarding Hegel's interpretation of history, Russell commented: "Like other historical theories, it required, if it was to be made plausible, some distortion of facts and considerable ignorance". ), The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography, Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, Vorlesungen über de Geschichte der Philosophie, "Adam Smith's Influence on Hegel's Philosophical Writings", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Duden | He-gel | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition", "Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie", "MDZ-Reader – Band – Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie / Göschel, Carl Friedrich", "Hegel and Clausewitz: Convergence on Method, Divergence on Ethics", On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, « Der Instinkt der Vernünftigkeit » and other texts, Hegel, as the National Philosopher of Germany (1874), "The Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel", Scans of all (original, German) books from Hegel (all editions) between 1807 and 1850 as PDFs at hegel.net, Works by or about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Relationship between religion and science, Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel&oldid=995579405, People educated at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Francke, Kuno, Howard, William Guild, Schiller, Friedrich, 1913–1914, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 20:41. Achetez et téléchargez ebook Werke von Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German Edition): Boutique Kindle - Littérature : Amazon.fr Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right (1821). Also in 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written. Il s’inscrit ensuite en faculté de théologie. 28 x 20 de 334 pp. HEGEL Werke. [59]:4, At the age of three, Hegel went to the German School. Use the Admin widget page to populate the sidebar. Soon after, his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household in April 1817, having spent time in an orphanage[59]:354–55 after the death of his mother Christiana Burkhardt.[59]:356. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Other, freedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Delphi Collected Works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Illustrated) 2019 Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British idealism, logical positivism, Marxism and Fascism. p. 1. p. 100, In the 1870s and 1880s, Rev. Part of his remit was to teach a class called "Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences", Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences, falling into three parts: logic, philosophy of nature and philosophy of spirit. Hegel lived his first three years in Nuremberg. [146] Popper also makes the claim in the second volume of The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) that Hegel's system formed a thinly veiled justification for the absolute rule of Frederick William III and that Hegel's idea of the ultimate goal of history was to reach a state approximating that of 1830s Prussia. In 1831, Frederick William III decorated him with the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class for his service to the Prussian state. He was the son of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who died in 1831, when Karl Hegel was 18 years old. Né le 27 août 1770 à Stuttgart, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand réputé. In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion, Part 3, Hegel is particularly interested in demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof. Because every concept is a composite of contraries (value is black and white, temperature is hot and cold, etc. This period saw the publication of his second major work, the Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik; 3 vols., 1812, 1813 and 1816), and the birth of his two legitimate sons, Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1813–1901) and Immanuel Thomas Christian (1814–1891). On the day before the battle, Napoleon entered the city of Jena. The mystical writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism. Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. While in Nuremberg, Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly cast off as it becomes freer and more self-determining.[106]. Hegel læste forbudte franske aviser, sang Marseillaisen og sluttede sig til hemmelige selskaber, hvor man råbte Vive la Liberte! Søren Kierkegaard Concluding Unscientific Postscriptt. A. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has influenced many major English-language studies of Hegel. [101] In fact, Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. Tout au long de sa vie, et quel que soit le poste qu’il occupait, Hegel n’a jamais cessé d’écrire des œuvres littéraires dont la grande majorité avait un caractère philosophique. "[50] In his work Systematic Theology, theologian Paul Tillich referred to Hegel's work as "perfect essentialism," later writing "essentialism was in Hegel's system fulfilled. The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. What distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume, is that they regarded freedom or self-determination as real and having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity. [68][69][70] Unbeknownst to Hegel, Giuseppe Piazzi had discovered the minor planet Ceres within that orbit on 1 January 1801. [75]:207–208, In 1819–1827, he made two trips to Weimar, where he met Goethe, and to Brussels, the Northern Netherlands, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, and Paris.[76]. In 1801, Hegel came to Jena at the encouragement of his old friend Schelling, who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University of Jena. Hegel further attests that God (as Jesus) not only died, but "[...] rather, a reversal takes place: God, that is to say, maintains himself in the process, and the latter is only the death of death. [108] He espouses that "God is not an abstraction but a concrete God [...] God, considered in terms of his eternal Idea, has to generate the Son, has to distinguish himself from himself; he is the process of differentiating, namely, love and Spirit". Kant imported Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty into his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom as well as of God. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels Werke vollstandige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten Ph. "Rezension des Aenesidemus" ("Review of Aenesidemus"), This term is actually quite rare in Hegel's writings. According to Hegel, this unity evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels Wissenschaft der Logik. A diverse range of individuals including Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Marx, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Bertrand Russell, G. E. Moore, Franz Rosenzweig, Eric Voegelin and A. J. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Esthétique, Tome 1 de Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Mais l'esprit ne s'en tient pas à la simple appréhension par la vue ou par l'ouïe des objets extérieurs, il en fait usage dans sa vie intérieure, qui est poussée d'abord à prendre elle aussi la forme de la sensibilité en se réalisant dans des choses extérieures ; ce mode de relation aux choses extérieures est le désir. Nevertheless, Hegel assumed that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy. Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Bagaimana George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel menjawab pergolakan pemikiran tentang konsep Moral, serta Bagaimana pula Konsep Moral dalam Pandangan Islam. In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness. [59]:548 Early the following year, Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. Martin Heidegger (trans. For example: Parmenides took pure being to be the absolute; Gorgias replaced it with pure nothing; Heraclitus replaced both being and nothing with becoming (which is a unity of two contraries: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be). He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and facilitated a "philosophical disputorium". Each new logic book staked a new claim in a century-long expansionist turf war among philosophical trends.[79]. Martin Heidegger (trans. An individual's "supreme duty is to be a member of the state" (Elements of the Philosophy of Right, section 258). This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. 2008. A partir de 1793, Hegel est précepteur dans la famille du capitaine Karl Friedrich von Steiger où il est chargé de l’éducation de deux petits garçons de 6 et 8 ans. However, Hegel himself describes the system as a "circle of circles:", ...the science presents itself as a circle that winds around itself, where the mediation winds the end back to the beginning which is the simple ground; the circle is thus a circle of circles, for each single member ensouled by the method is reflected into itself so that, in returning to the beginning it is at the same time the beginning of a new member.[92]. "On Hegel—A Study in Sorcery", in J. T. Fraser, F. Haber & G. Muller (eds. This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was used by Alexis de Tocqueville. "[51] Martin Heidegger observed in his 1969 work Identity and Difference and in his personal Black Notebooks that Hegel's system in an important respect "consummates western philosophy"[52][53][54] by completing the idea of the logos, the self-grounding ground, in thinking through the identification of Being and beings, which is "the theme of logic", writing "[I]t is... incontestable that Hegel, faithful to tradition, sees the matter of thinking in beings as such and as a whole, in the movement of Being from its emptiness to its developed fullness. God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed". Rather, it comes to completion in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself. Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système de tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. There, Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels Werke vollstandige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten Ph. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, histoire et biographie de Hegel, Biographie Pierre-augustin caron de beaumarchais, les citations de Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Au paradis terrestre, le serpent se fait tentateur auprès, Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, histoire et biographie de De Beaumarchais, Morgan Sportès, histoire et biographie de Sportès, Décès de Christophe, retour sur sa vie et ses succès. En 1808, son père est recteur du gymnasium (lycée) de Nuremberg (aujourd'hui Melanchton -Gymnasium). Ensemble, ils fondent le Journal critique de philosophie qui n’est resté ouvert qu’entre 1802 et 1803. In 1805, the university promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor (unsalaried) after he wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang Goethe protesting the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him. This mind comprehends all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. At the age of eighteen, Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen), where he had as roommates the poet and philosopher Friedrich Hölderlin and the future philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. "[78] He was buried on 16 November. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. The particular is never complete in itself, but in its quest to find completion continually transforms into more comprehensive, complex, self-relating particulars. [112][113][114], Hegel conceived of the immortality of the soul in the following manner in reference to Christianity:[115][116], Thus the immortality of the soul must not be represented as first entering the sphere of reality only at a later stage; it is the actual present quality of spirit; spirit is eternal, and for this reason is already present. Voegelin, Eric (1972). Celle-ci, bien qu’est décédée prématurément, a beaucoup contribué à former intellectuellement son fils. Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (en russe : Василий Яковлевич Струве, Vassili Iakovlevitch Struve), né le 15 avril 1793 à Altona et mort le 23 novembre 1864 à Saint-Pétersbourg, est un astronome russe d'origine germano-balte [74]:773, Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in 1816. Beginning in the 1960s, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has challenged the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, né le 27 août 1770 à Stuttgart et mort le 14 novembre 1831 à Berlin, est un philosophe allemand. Un vol. Authors he read include the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment, such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. [44][45][46][47][48][49] Derrida wrote of Hegel in his work Of Grammatology that "he undoubtedly summed up the entire philosophy of the logos. Tout au long de son existence, il prendra soin de son éducation. Hegel and his father also caught the disease, but they narrowly survived. This is because, as Hegel suggested by his introduction of the concept of "reality",[95]:111 what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" (following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like") than what does not. Jubiläumsausgabe in 20 Bänden, auf Grund des von Ludwig Boumann, Friedrich Förster, Eduard Gans, Karl Hegel... etc. A l’âge de 18 ans, Hegel entre au séminaire de Tübingen pour poursuivre ses études universitaires. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Werke, Vol. Marheineka, D. J. Schulze, D. Ed. Vollständige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten: Werke. Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" (Science of Logic, sections 1781–1783) or "absolute knowledge" (Phenomenology of Spirit, "(DD) Absolute Knowledge"). From the time of Leibniz to the widespread adoption of Frege's logic in the 1930s, every standard work on logic consisted of three divisions: doctrines of concept, judgment, and inference. Karen Ng writes that "there is a central, recurring rhetorical device that Hegel returns to again and again throughout his philosophical system: that of describing the activity of reason and thought in terms of the dynamic activity and development of organic life. Hänen ajatuksillaan oli suuri vaikutus marxismiin. Hegel's own career suffered from the fame of his father. In 1802, Schelling and Hegel founded the journal Kritische Journal der Philosophie (Critical Journal of Philosophy) to which they contributed until the collaboration ended when Schelling left for Würzburg in 1803. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx's civil society as an economic base;[101] to the right, it became a description for all non-state (and the state is the peak of the objective spirit) aspects of society, including culture, society and politics. His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. [142] In a similar vein, Robert Pippin notes that some view Hegel as having "the ugliest prose style in the history of the German language". Fealsamh Gearmánach ba ea Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27 Lúnasa 1770 – 14 Samhain 1831) agus é ar an duine ba thábhachtaí san idéalachas Gearmánach. "[55][56] Heidegger in various places further stated Hegel's thinking to be "the most powerful thinking of modern times. 2009 Audiobooks See All. [87] Hegel understood the history of philosophy to be a trans-historical socratic argument concerning the identity of the Absolute. En 1790, il obtient sa maîtrise en philosophie. Ce dernier, avant de le rejoindre, lui trouve un emploi de précepteur à Francfort-sur-le-Main dans la famille de Johann Noë Gogel. "[40], Hegel's work has been considered the "completion of philosophy"[41][42][43] by multiple of the most influential thinkers in existentialism, post-structuralism, and twentieth-century theology. American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich, Rudolf Siebert, Richard Dien Winfield and Theodore Geraets. Hegel secured a position at the University of Jena as a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) after submitting the inaugural dissertation De Orbitis Planetarum, in which he briefly criticized arguments that assert—based on Bode's Law or other arbitrary choice of mathematical series—there must exist a planet between Mars and Jupiter. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians, which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers. Vollständige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten: D. Ph. Schopenhauer, Arthur. [60] Hegel had a sister, Christiane Luise (1773–1832); and a brother, Georg Ludwig (1776–1812), who perished as an officer during Napoleon's 1812 Russian campaign. Hegel's concept of Aufhebung, by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology. [76] In August 1831, a cholera epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city, taking up lodgings in Kreuzberg. Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant, Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang Goethe and by the French Revolution. This evolution was the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness. [63] They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. [59]:223 Hegel attempted to enlist the help of the poet and translator Johann Heinrich Voß to obtain a post at the renascent University of Heidelberg, but he failed. The speculative identity of mind and nature suggests that reason and history progress in the direction of the Absolute by traversing various stages of relative immaturity, just like a sapling or a child, overcoming necessary setbacks and obstacles along the way (see Progress below). Just as humans continually correct their concept of reality through a dialectical process, God becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming. A partir de 1805, il a épuisé son héritage et connaît des difficultés financières. [111] This led Hegelian philosopher, jurist and politician Carl Friedrich Göschel (1784–1861) to write a treatise demonstrating the consistency of Hegel's philosophy with Christian doctrine on the soul's immortality (Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie: eine Ostergabe – From the evidence of the immortality of the human soul in the light of speculative philosophy: an Easter gift) (Berlin: Verlag von Duncker und Humblot, 1835). En janvier 1799, Hegel retourne à Stuttgart suite au décès de son père. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking". La culture le savoir se partagent et c'est avec joie que nous vous offrons des milliers de proverbes, des citations, des poèmes des romans. Kritisches Journal der Philosophie 1802/1803. the French Revolution) would cause the creation of its "antithesis" (e.g. [59]:80 While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". Il y apprend les mathématiques, la philologie, la physique, l’histoire et la philosophie. A partir de 1808, il est donc recteur du gymnasium de Nuremberg. [65] In 1799, he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate",[66] unpublished during his lifetime. According to Hegel, "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology. Il est décédé le 14 novembre 1831 à Berlin. Il fut, notamment, l’assistant de son ami Schelling avec qui il partageait un logement. (Hegel has been seen in the twentieth century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad,[34] but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. Bienvenue sur www.cultivonsnous.fr. [133], In the last half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. A l’âge de 18 ans, Hegel entre au séminaire de Tübingen pour poursuivre ses études universitaires. Noté /5. This was due to (a) the rediscovery and re-evaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; (b) a resurgence of Hegel's historical perspective; and (c) an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method. For both Hegel and Kant, "we arrive at the concept of the thing in itself by removing, or abstracting from, everything in our experiences of objects of which we can become conscious. A cette époque, ses ouvrages littéraires se reposaient surtout sur la religion chrétienne. [36] For example, "the roots of post-structuralism and its unifying basis lies, in large part, in a general opposition not to the philosophical tradition tout court but specifically to the Hegelian tradition" dominating philosophy in the twentieth century prior to post-structuralism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand. (Unabridged) 2017 Einleitung in die Philosophie des Geistes. ; 1984; 'The Significance of Hegel's separation of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski, A.Z. However, Hegel interprets not-A as not existing at all, not nothing at all, which cannot be conceived, but an indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity. To this list, one could add Proclus, Meister Eckhart, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Plotinus, Jakob Böhme, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Stefan Gruner: "Hegel's Aether Doctrine". Il est décédé le 14 novembre 1831 à l’âge de 61 ans et repose, désormais, au cimetière de Dorotheenstadt. It was written in Hegel's hand, but may have been authored by Hegel, Schelling, Hölderlin, or an unknown fourth person.[67]. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) wis a German philosopher that wis a major feegur in German idealism.He achieved wide recogneetion in his day an—while primarily influential within the continental tradeetion o philosophie—haes acome increasinly influential in the analytic tradition as well. Hegel was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year. Hegel preserved this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite (a process that Hegel in fact related to "freedom" and the "ought"),[95]:133–136, 138 the universal going beyond the particular (in the Concept) and Spirit going beyond Nature. Hegel rendered these dualities intelligible by (ultimately) his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic". Marheineke ... et al. In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place. Scholars such as Clark Butler hold that a good portion of the Logic is formalizable, proceeding deductively via indirect proof. [149] This concept of Hegel as a hermetic thinker was elaborated by Glenn Alexander Magee,[150] who argued that interpreting Hegel's body of work as an expression of mysticism and hermetic ideas leads to a more accurate understanding of Hegel. In 1776, he entered Stuttgart's gymnasium illustre and during his adolescence read voraciously, copying lengthy extracts in his diary. [62] Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary, the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. Il y apprend les mathématiques, la philologie, la physique, l’histoire et la philosophie. Having received his theological certificate (Konsistorialexamen) from the Tübingen Seminary, Hegel became Hofmeister (house tutor) to an aristocratic family in Bern (1793–1796). Herbert L. and Patricia Allen Dreyfus). Those without this background would be advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy. Retrouvez Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality.

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